Content Of The Mental Stream





We have seen that our mental life may be likened to a stream flowing now

faster, now slower, ever shifting, never ceasing. We have yet to inquire

what constitutes the material of the stream, or what is the stuff that

makes up the current of our thought--what is the content of

consciousness? The question cannot be fully answered at this point, but

a general notion can be gained which will be of service.



WHY WE NEED MINDS.--Let us first of all ask what mind is for, why do

animals, including men, have minds? The biologist would say, in order

that they may adapt themselves to their environment. Each individual

from mollusc to man needs the amount and type of mind that serves to

fit its possessor into its particular world of activity. Too little mind

leaves the animal helpless in the struggle for existence. On the other

hand a mind far above its possessor's station would prove useless if not

a handicap; a mollusc could not use the mind of a man.



CONTENT OF CONSCIOUSNESS DETERMINED BY FUNCTION.--How much mind does man

need? What range and type of consciousness will best serve to adjust us

to our world of opportunity and responsibility? First of all we must

know our world, hence, our mind must be capable of gathering

knowledge. Second, we must be able to feel its values and respond to

the great motives for action arising from the emotions. Third, we must

have the power to exert self-compulsion, which is to say that we possess

a will to control our acts. These three sets of processes, knowing,

feeling, and willing, we shall, therefore, expect to find making up

the content of our mental stream.



Let us proceed at once to test our conclusion by introspection. If we

are sitting at our study table puzzling over a difficult problem in

geometry, reasoning forms the wave in the stream of consciousness--the

center of the field. It is the chief thing in our thinking. The fringe

of our consciousness is made up of various sensations of the light from

the lamp, the contact of our clothing, the sounds going on in the next

room, some bit of memory seeking recognition, a tramp thought which

comes along, and a dozen other experiences not strong enough to occupy

the center of the field.



But instead of the study table and the problem, give us a bright

fireside, an easy-chair, and nothing to do. If we are aged,

memories--images from out the past--will probably come thronging in

and occupy the field to such extent that the fire burns low and the room

grows cold, but still the forms from the past hold sway. If we are

young, visions of the future may crowd everything else to the margin of

the field, while the castles in Spain occupy the center.



Our memories may also be accompanied by emotions--sorrow, love, anger,

hate, envy, joy. And, indeed, these emotions may so completely occupy

the field that the images themselves are for the time driven to the

margin, and the mind is occupied with its sorrow, its love, or its joy.



Once more, instead of the problem or the memories or the castles in

Spain, give us the necessity of making some decision, great or small,

where contending motives are pulling us now in this direction, now in

that, so that the question finally has to be settled by a supreme effort

summed up in the words, I will. This is the struggle of the will which

each one knows for himself; for who has not had a raging battle of

motives occupy the center of the field while all else, even the sense of

time, place and existence, gave way in the face of this conflict! This

struggle continues until the decision is made, when suddenly all the

stress and strain drop out and other objects may again have place in

consciousness.



THE THREE FUNDAMENTAL PHASES OF CONSCIOUSNESS.--Thus we see that if we

could cut the stream of consciousness across as we might cut a stream of

water from bank to bank with a huge knife, and then look at the cut-off

section, we should find very different constituents in the stream at

different times. We should at one time find the mind manifesting itself

in perceiving, remembering, imagining, discriminating,

comparing, judging, reasoning, or the acts by which we gain our

knowledge; at another in fearing, loving, hating, sorrowing,

enjoying, or the acts of feeling; at still another in choosing, or

the act of the will. These processes would make up the stream, or, in

other words, these are the acts which the mind performs in doing its

work. We should never find a time when the stream consists of but one of

the processes, or when all these modes of mental activity are not

represented. They will be found in varying proportions, now more of

knowing, now of feeling, and now of willing, but some of each is always

present in our consciousness. The nature of these different elements in

our mental stream, their relation to each other, and the manner in which

they all work together in amazing perplexity yet in perfect harmony to

produce the wonderful mind, will constitute the subject-matter we

shall consider together in the pages which follow.





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