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What Constitutes A Good Memory








Let us next inquire what are the qualities which enter into what we call
a good memory. The merchant or politician will say, Ability to remember
well people's faces and names; the teacher of history, The ability to
recall readily dates and events; the teacher of mathematics, The power
to recall mathematical formulae; the hotel waiter, The ability to keep
in mind half-a-dozen orders at a time; the manager of a corporation,
The ability to recall all the necessary details connected with the
running of the concern. While these answers are very divergent, yet
they may all be true for the particular person testifying; for out of
them all there emerges this common truth, that the best memory is the
one which best serves its possessor. That is, one's memory not only
must be ready and exact, but must produce the right kind of material; it
must bring to us what we need in our thinking. A very easy corollary at
once grows out of this fact; namely, that in order to have the memory
return to us the right kind of matter, we must store it with the right
kind of images and ideas, for the memory cannot give back to us anything
which we have not first given into its keeping.

A GOOD MEMORY SELECTS ITS MATERIAL.--The best memory is not necessarily
the one which impartially repeats the largest number of facts of past
experience. Everyone has many experiences which he never needs to have
reproduced in memory; useful enough they may have been at the time, but
wholly useless and irrelevant later. They have served their purpose, and
should henceforth slumber in oblivion. They would be but so much rubbish
and lumber if they could be recalled. Everyone has surely met that
particular type of bore whose memory is so faithful to details that no
incident in the story he tells, no matter however trivial, is ever
omitted in the recounting. His associations work in such a tireless
round of minute succession, without ever being able to take a jump or a
short cut, that he is powerless to separate the wheat from the chaff; so
he dumps the whole indiscriminate mass into our long-suffering ears.

Dr. Carpenter tells of a member of Parliament who could repeat long
legal documents and acts of Parliament after one reading. When he was
congratulated on his remarkable gift, he replied that, instead of being
an advantage to him, it was often a source of great inconvenience,
because when he wished to recollect anything in a document he had read,
he could do it only by repeating the whole from the beginning up to the
point which he wished to recall. Maudsley says that the kind of memory
which enables a person to read a photographic copy of former
impressions with his mind's eye is not, indeed, commonly associated with
high intellectual power, and gives as a reason that such a mind is
hindered by the very wealth of material furnished by the memory from
discerning the relations between separate facts upon which judgment and
reasoning depend. It is likewise a common source of surprise among
teachers that many of the pupils who could outstrip their classmates in
learning and memory do not turn out to be able men. But this, says
Whately, is as reasonable as to wonder that a cistern if filled should
not be a perpetual fountain. It is possible for one to be so lost in a
tangle of trees that he cannot see the woods.

A GOOD MEMORY REQUIRES GOOD THINKING.--It is not, then, mere
re-presentation of facts that constitutes a good memory. The pupil who
can reproduce a history lesson by the page has not necessarily as good a
memory as the one who remembers fewer facts, but sees the relations
between those remembered, and hence is able to choose what he will
remember. Memory must be discriminative. It must fasten on that which
is important and keep that for us. Therefore we can agree that the art
of remembering is the art of thinking. Discrimination must select the
important out of our mental stream, and these images must be associated
with as many others as possible which are already well fixed in memory,
and hence are sure of recall when needed. In this way the old will
always serve as a cue to call up the new.

MEMORY MUST BE SPECIALIZED.--And not only must memory, if it is to be a
good memory, omit the generally worthless, or trivial, or irrelevant,
and supply the generally useful, significant, and relevant, but it must
in some degree be a specialized memory. It must minister to the
particular needs and requirements of its owner. Small consolation to you
if you are a Latin teacher, and are able to call up the binomial theorem
or the date of the fall of Constantinople when you are in dire need of a
conjugation or a declension which eludes you. It is much better for the
merchant and politician to have a good memory for names and faces than
to be able to repeat the succession of English monarchs from Alfred the
Great to Edward VII and not be able to tell John Smith from Tom Brown.
It is much more desirable for the lawyer to be able to remember the
necessary details of his case than to be able to recall all the various
athletic records of the year; and so on.

In order to be a good memory for us, our memory must be faithful in
dealing with the material which constitutes the needs of our vocations.
Our memory may, and should, bring to us many things outside of our
immediate vocations, else our lives will be narrow; but its chief
concern and most accurate work must be along the path of our everyday
requirements at its hands. And this works out well in connection with
the physiological laws which were stated a little while since, providing
that our vocations are along the line of our interests. For the things
with which we work daily, and in which we are interested, will be often
thought of together, and hence will become well associated. They will be
frequently recalled, and hence more easily remembered; they will be
vividly experienced as the inevitable result of interest, and this goes
far to insure recall.





Next: Memory Devices

Previous: Rules For Using The Memory



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